The integrity of the abdominal wall is vital as it protects the internal organs, supports the spine and helps maintain an upright posture. Patients with complex hernias, recurrence of previously repaired hernias, or abdominal trauma may have abdominal wall defects. Abdominal wall reconstruction surgery is an advanced surgical procedure that strengthens a weakened or damaged abdominal muscle and restores the normal function of the abdominal wall. However, the management of abdominal wall defects is challenging and complex. This Special Issue aims to discuss key technology in abdominal wall repair, the complex cases and the different surgical approaches to explore a new future development direction in abdominal wall repair and better serve patients.