Cover Picture: As presented in this study, we describe the routine performance of detailed mapmaking for needle puncture of PLPED. This map includes entry points of skin (P) and that of annulus fibrosus (O) calculated by each distance (x, y, and z). Anatomical landmarks (spine, sacral ara, and iliac crest) are drawn together with these points. The map enables one to imagine underneath anatomical structures and to estimate obstruction of the puncture by iliac crest. PLPED combining free-running EMG monitoring under general anesthesia is a safe and efficacious procedure for the treatment of LDH. The strict free-running EMG monitoring under general anesthesia makes both patients and surgeons comfortable and contributes to an improvement inoperative skill.
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